The ancients used gold to symbolize balance in all things, as in the "golden mean."
Eminent orators such as John Chrysostom were said to have a “mouth of gold with a silver tongue.” Gold is associated with notable anniversaries, particularly in a 50-year cycle, such as a golden wedding anniversary, golden jubilee, etc
Gold is associated with divine principles. Phi is sometimes called "the golden ratio."
Gold represents great value. If we value others, we treat them with "the golden rule." We give valued customers "gold cards." We value moments of peace; therefore, "silence is golden." In Greek mythology, "the golden fleece" is the valued, sought-after goal.
Gold is further associated with the wisdom of aging. (Note that "gold" contains the word "old.") The fiftieth wedding anniversary is golden. Our latter years are also considered golden. The height of wisdom in civilizations is referred to as "the golden age."
Gold has been associated with the extremities of utmost evil and great sanctity throughout history. In the Book of Exodus, the Golden Calf is a symbol of idolatry and rebellion against God. On the other hand in the Book of Genesis, Abraham was said to be rich in gold and silver, and Moses was instructed to cover the Mercy Seat of the Ark of the Covenant with pure gold. One of the wise men gave gold as a gift to Jesus when he was born.
In Communist propaganda, the golden pocket watch and its fastening golden chain were the characteristic accessories of the class enemy, the bourgeois and the industrial tycoons. Credit card companies associate their product with wealth by naming and coloring their top-of-the-range cards “gold;” although, in an attempt to out-do each other, platinum (and the even-more-elite black card) has now overtaken gold.